References & Research

Developing the SVPP

In order to build a theory driven and evidence-based sexual violence prevention strategy we conducted an extensive literature review.

Listed below are several references that have guided the design, curriculum development, and implementation of the SVPP. This is not an exhaustive list.


  • Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for diversity and social justice. New York :Routledge.
  • Berkowitz, A.D. (2002). Fostering Men's Responsibility for Preventing Sexual Assault. Chapter 7 (p 163-196) in Paul A. Schewe. (Ed). Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: Developmentally Appropriate Interventions Across the Lifespan. Washington, American Psychological Press.
  • Berkowitz, A.D. (2007). Overcoming the obstacles to campus safety: Developing a comprehensive approach to prevention [White paper]. Retrieved December 12, 2017 from:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). Preventing Sexual Violence on College Campuses: Lessons from Research and Practice.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual Violence Prevention: Beginning the Dialogue. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual Violence: Risk and Protective Factors. (2016). Retrieved December, 2016.
  • Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Cook-Craig, P. G., DeGue, S. A., Clear, E. R., Brancato, C. J., Fisher, B. S., & Recktenwald, E. A. (2017). RCT testing bystander effectiveness to reduce violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 52(5), 566–578.
  • Coker, A. L., Bush, H. M., Fisher, B. S., Swan, S. C., Williams, C. M., Clear, E. R., & DeGue, S. (2016). Multi-college bystander intervention evaluation for violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 50(3), 295–302.
  • Coker, A. L., Cook-Craig, P. G., Williams, C. M., Fisher, B. S., Clear, E. R., Garcia, L. S., & Hegge, L. M. (2011). Evaluation of Green Dot: An Active Bystander Intervention to Reduce Sexual Violence on College Campuses. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 777–796. 
  • Coker, A. L., Fisher, B. S., Bush, H. M., Swan, S. C., Williams, C. M., Clear, E. R., & DeGue, S. (2015). Evaluation of the Green Dot Bystander Intervention to Reduce Interpersonal Violence Among College Students Across Three Campuses. Violence Against Women, 21(12), 1507–1527.
  • Cook-Craig, P. G., Coker, A. L., Clear, E. R., Garcia, L. S., Bush, H. M., Brancato, C. J., Williams, C. M., & Fisher, B. S. (2014). Challenge and opportunity in evaluating a diffusion-based active bystanding prevention program: Green dot in high schools. Violence Against Women, 20(10), 1179–1202.
  • Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241-1299.
  • Dartmouth College Inclusive Excellence Student Working Group. Learn Together. (2016). Hanover, NH: Dartmouth College. Retrieved June, 2016.
  • DeGue, S., Valle, L. A., Holt, M. K., Massetti, G. M., Matjasko, J. L., & Tharp, A. T. (2014). A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 19(4), 346-362.
  • Dills J., Fowler D., Payne G. Sexual Violence on Campus: Strategies for Prevention. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016.
  • EverFi. (2014). Approach & Impact: Programming, Critical Process, Institutionalization. Boston, MA: EverFi.
  • Foshee, V., Bauman, K., Arriaga, X., Helms, R., Koch, G., & Linder, G. (1998). An evaluation of safe dates, an adolescent dating violence protection programAmerican Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 45–50.
  • Gidycz, C. A., Orchowski, L. M., & Berkowitz, A. D. (2011). Preventing Sexual Aggression Among College Men: An Evaluation of a Social Norms and Bystander Intervention Program. Violence Against Women, 17(6), 720–742.
  • Gonzalez, H.B., & Feder, J. (2016). Sexual violence at institutions of higher education (CRS Report R43764). Washington, DC: Congressional Research.
  • Harris, J. C., & Linder, C. (Eds.). (2017). Intersections of identity and sexual violence on campus: Centering minoritized students' experience. Dulles: Stylus Publishing.
  • Harvard University Task Force on the Prevention of Sexual Assault. Final Report. (2016). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.
  • Hirsch, J. S., & Khan, S. (2021). Sexual citizens: Sex, power, and assault on campus. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.
  • Lonsway, K.A., Banyard, V.L., Berkowitz, A.D., Gidycz, C.A., Katz. J.T., Koss, M.P., Schewe, P.A., & Ullman, S.E. (2009). Rape Prevention and Risk Reduction: Review of the Research Literature for Practitioners.
  • McCarthy, K., & Rankin, S. (2015). Education and Prevention Task Force: Sexual Misconduct, Intimate Partner Violence, and Stalking. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  • McMahon, S. & Seabrook, R.C. (2019). Reasons for Nondisclosure of Campus Sexual Violence by Sexual and Racial/Ethnic Minority WomenJournal of Student Affairs Research and Practice 0:0, pages 1-15.
  • Moynihan, M. M., & Banyard, V. L. (2008). Community responsibility for preventing sexual violence: A pilot with campus Greeks and intercollegiate athletes. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 36(1–2), 23–28.
  • Moynihan, M. M., Banyard, V. L., Arnold, J. S., Eckstein, R. P., & Stapleton, J. G. (2010). Engaging intercollegiate athletes in preventing and intervening in sexual and intimate partner violence. Journal of American College Health, 59(3), 197–204.
  • Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K.L., Seybolt, D., Morrissey-Kane, E., & Davino, K. (2003). What Works in Prevention: Principles of Effective Prevention Programs. American Psychologist, 58, 449-56.
  • Nation, M., Keener, D., Wandersman, A., & DuBois, D. (2005). Applying the Principles of Prevention: What Do Prevention Practitioners Need to Know About What Works? PsycEXTRA Dataset.
  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Violence Prevention. Retrieved June, 2016.
  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway in Early Adolescence. Applying Science. Advancing Practice. Retrieved August, 2016, from
  • National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Understanding Sexual Violence: Fact Sheet. Applying Science. Advancing Practice. Retrieved January, 2016.
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association Sexual Assault Task Force. (2016). Sexual Violence Prevention: An Athletic Tool Kit for a Healthy and Safe Culture. Retrieved November, 2016.
  • Potter, S., Fountain, K. & Stapleton, J. (2012). Addressing Sexual and Relationship Violence in the LGBT Community Using a Bystander Framework. Harvard review of psychiatry. 20. 201-8. 10.3109/10673229.2012.712838. 
  • Prevention Innovations Research Center (2016). Examples of Strategic Planning for the Development of Comprehensive Sexual Violence Prevention Strategies.
  • Senn, C. Y., Eliasziw, M., Barata, P. C., Thurston, W. E., Newby-Clark, I. R., Radtke, H. L., & Hobden, K. L. (2015). Efficacy of a Sexual Assault Resistance Program for University Women. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(14), 2326-2335. 
  • Springer, F., & Phillips, J. (2006). The IOM Model: A Tool for Prevention Planning and Implementation. Prevention Tactics, 8:13.
  • Taylor-Powell, E. & Henert, E. (2008). Developing a logic model: Teaching and training guide. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin-Extension, Cooperative Extension, Program Development and Evaluation.
  • Tharp, A. T., Degue, S., Valle, L. A., Brookmeyer, K. A., Massetti, G. M., & Matjasko, J. L. (2012). A Systematic Qualitative Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Violence Perpetration. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 14(2), 133-167. 
  • Thompson, M. P. (2014). Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Aggression and Dating Violence: Common Themes and Future Directions. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15(4), 304-309.
  • Turell, S., Herrmann, M., Hollander, G. & Galletly, C. (2012) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Communities' Readiness for Intimate Partner Violence Prevention, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 24:3, 289-310.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, Question and Answers on Title IX and Sexual Violence (Apr. 2014). Retrieved January, 2016.
  • U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights, Title IX Resource Guide (Apr. 2015). Retrieved January, 2016.
  • Vladutiu, C. J., Martin, S. L., & Macy, R. J. (2010). College- or University-Based Sexual Assault Prevention Programs: A Review of Program Outcomes, Characteristics, and Recommendations. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 12(2), 67-86.
  • White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault (U.S.) (2014). Establishing Prevention Programming: Strategic Planning for Campuses.
  • Weissbourd, R., Anderson, T. R., Cashin, A., & McIntyre, J. (n.d.). The Talk: How Adults Can Promote Young People's Healthy Relationships and Prevent Misogyny and Sexual Harassment (Rep.). Retrieved 2017, from Making Caring Common Project/Harvard Graduate School of Education.
  • Wilkins, N., Tsao, B., Hertz, M., Davis, R., & Klevens, J. (2014). Connecting the Dots: An Overview of the Links Among Multiple Forms of Violence. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Oakland, CA: Prevention Institute.

Sexual Violence Prevention Research

Currently, there is very little academic research looking into the types of interventions that successfully prevent sexual violence. Dartmouth has committed to not only implement multiple types of interventions through the Sexual Violence Prevention Project (SVPP), but also evaluate the effectiveness of those interventions.

Evaluating the SVPP

Dartmouth is partnering with experts in sexual violence prevention, research, and evaluation, from Prevention Innovations Research Center (PIRC) at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). They are tasked with evaluating the effectiveness of the SVPP utilizing a multi-year, mixed-method longitudinal study.

The overall research and evaluation will help determine if our prevention efforts are making a difference by increasing positive behavior (SVPP outcomes) and decreasing harmful behavior (sexual violence). 

The results of the research and evaluation will guide Dartmouth's prevention efforts moving forward and those that participate in the research, their responses, will contribute to the body of science for sexual violence prevention that could contribute to prevention strategies at other institutions across the country.

Evaluation FAQs

For more information about the SVPP evaluation visit Evaluation FAQs.